Author: Paul Terry

I love to travel. I've been fortunate to visit about 75 countries so far. I prefer to travel independently to get off the beaten path a bit. I also try to find good deals to make my travels more affordable.

More Day Trip Options from Porto: Lamego and Santa Maria da Feira Castle

If you’re up for a very full day trip from Porto, Portugal then consider adding a visit to the town of Lamego after Guimarães. After our visit to Guimarães Castle and the Ducal Palace, we continued on to Lamego, which is 119 km (74 miles) east from Guimarães. This drive is quite pretty, winding through the hills and valleys of the Douro Valley, the great wine producing region of Portugal.

Our primary reason to visit Lamego was to see the Santuário de Nossa Senhora dos Remédios (Our Lady of the Remedies), an 18th century Baroque church which sits on St. Stephen’s Hill (a pilgrimage site), with a fine view of Lamego. This church is on one of the routes pilgrims have taken when traveling to Santiago de Compostela in northwestern Spain. It is known for its beautiful stairways and decorative landings leading up to the church itself.

Santuário de Nossa Senhora dos Remédios, Lamego, Portugal

View of Lamego from the Santuário de Nossa Senhora dos Remédios.

Santuário de Nossa Senhora dos Remédios, Lamego, Portugal

Interior view of the Santuário de Nossa Senhora dos Remédios.

Santuário de Nossa Senhora dos Remédios, Lamego, Portugal.

One of the nine landings and some of the 686 steps which climb St. Stephen’s Hill to the Santuário de Nossa Senhora dos Remédios. Many of the landings have beautiful tile artwork.

Santuário de Nossa Senhora dos Remédios, Lamego, Portugal.

A view of the stairs and landings leading up to the Santuário de Nossa Senhora dos Remédios. Each September, as part of the Festa de Nossa Senhora dos Remédios, some pilgrims will climb the stairs on their knees.

In addition to the Santuário de Nossa Senhora dos Remédios, Lamego has an interesting and very historic Cathedral, which dates from the mid 12th century. It is located in the heart of the town, a short distance from the bottom of St. Stephen’s Hill. Its construction was commissioned by the 1st king of Portugal (Afonso Henriques).

Lamego Cathedral, Lamego, Portugal

A view of the Lamego Cathedral. The bell tower on the right dates from the early 1100’s.

Lamego Cathedral, Lamego, Portugal

Interior of the Lamego Cathedral.

Lamego Cathedral, Lamego, Portugal

The decorative door portals on the Lamego Cathedral were completed in 1514.

Lamego Cathedral, Lamego, Portugal.

A closer look at the 12th century bell tower of the Lamego Cathedral, which also served as a prison starting in the 1400’s.

Another gem in Lamego is the Chapel of São Pedro de Balsemão (Chapel of St. Peter). This ancient chapel (which dates to 600 CE) is a bit hard to find–it sits below the main town in a little narrow valley, but we managed to find it.

Chapel of São Pedro de Balsemão, Lamego, Portugal.

Exterior view of the Chapel of São Pedro de Balsemão, which belies its 1500 year-old interior.

Chapel of São Pedro de Balsemão, Lamego, Portugal.

Interior of the Chapel of São Pedro de Balsemão. Stones from a nearby Roman Villa were used in its construction (the tomb is from the 14th century, a Bishop of Porto).

Chapel of São Pedro de Balsemão, Lamego, Portugal.

This statue of Mary, found in the Chapel of São Pedro de Balsemão, was sculpted from white limestone in the 14th century.

On the fastest car route from Guimarães to Lamego lies the town of Vila Real. This town is home to the scenic 18th century Mateus Palace. This palace is privately managed and is quite pricey to visit, so we stopped only for a quick walk in the gardens and to view the exterior of the palace. It was a worthwhile stop.

Mateus Palace, Portugal

A postcard view of Mateus Palace.

Mateus Palace, Portugal

Exterior view of the chapel of Mateus Palace.

Mateus Palace, Portugal

View of the neatly manicured gardens of the Mateus Palace (the palace chapel is in the background).

Mateus Palace.

A little fountain and statue in the gardens of Mateus Palace.

Mateus Palace, Portugal

Another view of the gardens and surrounding countryside of Mateus Palace with my wife and mother-in-law.

Santa Maria da Feira Castle

This little town and castle is in a completely different direction from Porto than the sights mentioned above. Santa Maria da Feira is directly south of Porto about 32 km (20 miles). The reason to visit this town is for its historic castle, which although small, is  pretty classic-looking and worth a visit. There has been a fortress on this spot since the 10th century, it was a strategic stronghold for the reconquest of the Iberian peninsula from the Moors. The current castle dates from the 1400’s.

Santa Maria da Feira Castle, Portugal

Exterior view of the Santa Maria da Feira Castle.

Santa Maria da Feira Castle, Portugal

Another view of the castle from the side opposite the first photo.

Santa Maria da Feira Castle, Portugal

The roof of the castle – my mother-in-law in one of the castle’s towers.

Santa Maria da Feira Castle, Portugal

Courtyard of the castle.

Santa Maria da Feira Castle, Portugal

View of the town of Santa Maria da Feira from the castle roof.

During our visit to the castle, they were setting up for a Halloween party, what better place than an actual medieval castle!





Guimarães Castle, Portugal.

Guimarães Castle and Palace – A Great Day Trip from Porto and the Birthplace of Portugal

For a pleasant day trip from Porto, Portugal, try Guimarães. This town is about 55km (34 miles) northeast of Porto. Guimarães is considered the birthplace of Portugal. Although Portuguese dukes declared independence from this location as far back as the 12th century, true independence would not happen until the 17th century.  As with many cities in Europe, the history of Guimarães dates back to ancient times, at least to the Roman period. The site of the castle and palace, called Holy Hill, is steeped in history too. I always love when several historic buildings are part of the same property.

Guimarães Castle and Ducal Palace, Portugal

This little chapel, Church of São Miguel do Castelo (near Guimarães Castle), dates back to the 10th century (unfortunately it is not open for visitors).

The castle and palace described below are next door to each other and near the town center.

Guimarães Castle

This castle is very small, mainly a crenelated wall with eight towers and a small tower keep in the center. In spite of being small, it is a national symbol of Portugal’s founding and struggle for independence.

Guimaraes Castle, Portugal.

Interesting to see how the existing huge rocks were incorporated into the castle walls.

Guimaraes Castle, Portugal.

The tower keep at Guimarães Castle also incorporates the original hillside stone.

You can partially walk around the castle walls, which provide a good view of the palace and surrounding countryside.

Guimarães Castle, Portugal.

View of the Ducal Palace from Guimarães Castle.

Guimaraes Castle, Portugal

A view of the wall walk and a tower at Guimarães Castle.

The best views of the castle are from the exterior. It was built originally in the 10th century to protect against the Norsemen and Moorish invaders.

Guimaraes Castle, Portugal

Exterior view of Guimaraes Castle.

Ducal Palace of Braganza

The palace is more interesting than the castle, with a large interior courtyard and rooms that make you feel like you’ve been transported right back to the 1400’s. The style is reminiscent of French architecture, and the whole palace looks like it belongs in Northern Europe.

Ducal Palace of Branganza, Guimaraes, Portugal

Exterior view of the Ducal Palace of Braganza.

Ducal Palace of Braganza, Guimaraes, Portugal.

Courtyard of the Ducal Palace of Braganza.

Ducal Palace of Braganza, Guimarães

Another exterior view of the Ducal Palace of Braganza.

Great tapestries hang from the huge room walls, and the furniture fits the palace’s original period pretty well.

Ducal Palace of Braganza, Guimarães, Portugal

A hall in the Ducal Palace of Braganza, with massive tapestries.

Construction began in the early 15th century, as ordered by the Alfonso, Duke of Braganza.

Ducal Palace of Braganza, Guimaraes, Portugal

Great banquet hall in the Ducal Palace of Braganza

Ducal Palace of Braganza, Guimaraes, Portugal.

Another hall in the Ducal Palace of Braganza.

Ducal Palace of Braganza, Guimaraes, Portugal.

Room in the Ducal Palace of Braganza.

Ducal Palace of Braganza, Guimaraes, Portugal.

The chapel in the Ducal Palace of Braganza.

The palace has been reconstructed over the years and served as a residence for the President of Portugal in the mid 20th century.

Guimarães, Portugal.

This little square is next to the castle and palace. It has a statue of Dom Afonso Henriques, who was born in Guimarães and was the first king of Portugal (12th century). (Parking was available on the street right by the square).

In addition to the castle and palace, Guimarães has a quaint town center and a convent (Misericórdia), which we did not take the time to visit, since we wanted also to visit a few sights near Lumego on the same day. Lumego is 119 km (74 miles) east of Guimarães.

Dom Luís I Bridge, Porto, Portugal

The Sights of Porto, Portugal

Porto is one of the smaller great cities of Europe and slightly off the tourist radar, perhaps because it’s a bit isolated at the northwestern end of the Iberian peninsula. I think it’s a more interesting city than Lisbon, although it shares some similar physical characteristics, such as being located on a river and close to the Atlantic Ocean.

We spent a couple days in Porto, visiting sights in the city and the surrounding area. I’ve listed below a few things to see in Porto. In my next blog post I will cover some of the surrounding area.

Porto Train Station, Portugal

Interior of the Porto S. Bento Train Station – art work is everywhere you go in Porto.

Be warned, Porto is a hilly town and you will get your exercise walking up and down the city streets!


One of the many narrow streets in Porto.

Douro River Cruise

The Douro River is a major feature of Porto, dividing the city into two halves – north and south. The river is a transportation hub and much of Porto’s restaurant scene and nightlife centers on the river front. After arriving in Porto and getting settled in our apartment, we strolled down to the waterfront and chose one of several available river cruises for the evening. The cruise was about an hour long. It’s a great way to get a feel for the city and life along the waterfront.

Porto, Portugal

A typical river cruise boat on the Douro Rive (part of Porto’s old city wall is visible on the hillside).

Porto, Portugal

A view of Porto’s river waterfront, looking north. Porto’s cathedral sits above and behind the construction crane.

Porto, Portugal

One more view of Porto’s riverfront, note all the little booths selling food and trinkets along the bank.

Douro River, Porto, Portugal

A beautiful sunset frames the famed Dom Luís I Bridge which crosses the Douro River in the heart of Porto, connecting the north and south sides of the city.

Close to the Dom Luís I Bridge on the north side of the river are many restaurants. Just across the river on the south side are the famed Porto wine cellars. Admittedly, it’s a little touristy around here, but there’s a fun ambiance and it’s a great place to spend an evening.


Near the Douro River, restaurants get set for another evening of busy service.

Historic Churches 

There are a number of beautiful churches in Porto, many of which date from the early – mid 1700’s. They are easy to spot with their blue decorative tile exteriors. With our tourist map in hand, we explored about a half dozen churches, a few of those are shown below.


Straight ahead is the Igreja dos Congregados, one of the many decorated churches in Porto (S. Bento train station is on the right).

Igreja de Sto Ildefonso, Porto, Portugal.

Exterior of Igreja de Sto Ildefonso. Many of the churches from the early 18th century have beautiful tile work on the exterior.

Igreja do Carmo0

Side view of the Igreja do Carmo, another 18th century church in Porto.

Igreja de San Francisco, Porto, Portugal

The somber exterior of Igreja de San Francisco (which dates from the 14th century), does not give any clue as to what awaits the visitor inside.

Igreja de San Francisco, Porto, Portugal

Interior of Igreja de San Francisco, with some of the most ornate Baroque decorative woodwork I’ve seen in a church anywhere.

Igreja de San Francisco, Porto, Portugal.

A close-up of one of the altars in Igreja de San Francisco.

Irgreja e Torre dos Clergios. Porto, Portugal

Exterior of the Irgreja e Torre dos Clergios, which also dates from the early 18th century. The church and tower, as the name implies, are connected and both are well worth a visit.

Igreja e Torre dos Clérigos, Porto, Portugal

Interior of the Igreja e Torre dos Clérigos.

Torre dos Clerigos, Porto, Portugal.

A view of the Torre dos Clerigos, which dominates the Porto skyline. It can be climbed for great views of Porto.

Porto, Portugal

View from the Torre dos Clerigos. The 12th century cathedral is in the center of the old town.

Porto Cathedral, Porto, Portugal

The Porto Cathedral, which dates from the latter half of the 12th century.

Porto Cathedral, Porto, Portugal

Interior of the Porto Cathedral.

Porto Cathedral, Porto, Portugal

View of a portico of the Cathedral, with decorative tiles that were added in the 17th century.

General City Views and the Dom Luís I Bridge

The Dom Luís I Bridge connects north and south Porto and was built in the late 1800’s. One of the bidders on the project was none other than Gustave Eiffel, of Eiffel Tower fame, although he did not get the job. This bridge is the signature landmark of Porto and dominates the riverfront views of the old city.

Dom Luís I Bridge, Porto, Portugal

A view of the Dom Luís I Bridge and Douro River, looking to the old part of Porto, on the north bank.

The bridge can be walked on either the upper or the lower level. The upper level provides great views of the city for the pedestrian (and carries trains across the river), cars use the lower level as well as pedestrians.

Serra do Pilar Monastery, Dom Luis I Bridge, Porto, Portugal

A night view of the Dom Luís I Bridge, looking south. The building behind the bridge is the Serra do Pilar Monastery.

Livraria Vello Bookstore

The Livraria Vello bookstore is another famous landmark of Porto. It dates back to the late 1800’s, and is one of the oldest bookstores in Portugal and is considered one of the top three bookstores in the world. I’ve read that it served as inspiration for the Harry Potter books, as the author lived in Porto for a period of time and spent time here before writing the famous story.

Livraria Lello Bookstore, Porto, Portugal

Inside the Livraria Lello Bookstore, 2nd level.

Livraria Lello Bookstore, Porto, Portugal

The famed staircase inside the Livraria Lello.

Livraria Lello Bookstore, Porto, Portugal.

Another view of the Livraria Lello Bookstore.

Due to the store’s popularity, you have to get a ticket to visit the bookstore at a specific time, these can be purchased online. Also nearby is a fun gift shop with a whole variety of nicknacks.

Porto Souvenir Store, Porto, Portugal

Porto Souvenir Store

Our Apartment in Porto

As usual, Robyn found us a great place to stay in Porto, an apartment right in the old city on the north side of the river and close to all the sights.

Porto, Portugal

Robyn on the balcony of our apartment in Porto, which was a 5-10 minute walk to the riverfront.

Porto, Portugal

The kitchen of our apartment in Porto.

Porto, Portugal

Looking out on the street from our apartment in Porto.

Alcáçova Palace, Coimbra, Portugal

Coimbra, Portugal – Home to One of Europe’s Great Universities

Our last stop between Nazaré and Porto was Coimbra, home to one of Europe’s oldest universities and the former capital of Portugal. The university was founded in Lisbon in 1290, moved to Coimbra, then moved back to Lisbon and finally back to Coimbra for good in 1537. The university has an ideal setting–it makes its home in the Alcaçova Palace, which sits on a hill in the old quarter of Coimbra overlooking the Mondego river. About 20,000 students attend the university from all over the world.

Coimbra, Portugal

A view of Coimbra from the Alcaçova Palace.

Mondego River, Coimbra, Portugal

A view of Coimbra University buildings and the Mondego River in the distance.

There are three main sights for the tourist in the University:

Joanine Library. This 18th century library is the star tourist attraction of the university, and it is stunning. The library contains 250,000 volumes dating from the 15th century. Great care is taken to maintain an environment needed to preserve the old texts, including the housing of a small colony of bats that prey on the paper-eating insects that could destroy the books. Of course, cleaning up after the bats every day is no small challenge!

Joanine Library, Coimbra University, Portugal

A view inside the Joanine Library.

Coimbra University Library4

Another snapshot of the library, showing the table where old texts may be read.

Note: The rules state very clearly as you enter the library that no photos are allowed and they are serious about this. I took a few photos (above) on my phone and shortly thereafter I was quickly ushered out of the library. So, be warned! Also a ticket is required for entry to the library, and you are given a specific time to enter, with perhaps 10-15 other people.

São Miguel Chapel. This chapel was built in the early 1500’s and is quite beautiful with decorative tiles and a grand organ dating from 1733. The chapel is sometimes rented out for weddings and other events.

São Miguel Chapel, Coimbra, Portugal

The altar in the São Miguel Chapel.

Sao Miguel Chapel, Coimbra University, Coimbra, Portugal

A view of the tile work in the São Miguel Chapel.

Sao Miguel Chapel, Coimbra University, Portugal

The 18th century organ in the São Miguel Chapel.

Alcaçova Palace. Since Coimbra University occupies the buildings of a former palace, a few other rooms are open to tourists, most contain displays of local history.

Coimbra, Portugal

Courtyard and grand hall of Alcáçova Palace, home of Coimbra University.

Alcaçova Palace, Coimbra, Portugal

The grand hall of Alcaçova Palace where doctoral students defend their dissertations.

Alcaçova Palace, Coimbra, Portugal

Spear display in Alcaçova Palace.

Outside the university in the Old Quarter of Coimbra, we made just one other stop, to visit the “New” Cathedral (Sé Nova). This cathedral, built in 1598 is not exactly new, but relative to the old cathedral, known as Sé Velha (from the 12th century), I guess we can consider it new!

Sé Nova Cathedral, Coimbra, Portugal

Exterior view of Sé Nova Cathedral

Coimbra, Portugal

The altar in the Sé Nova de Coimbra.

Sé Nova Cathedral, Coimbra, Portugal

Chapel in Sé Nova, Coimbra.

If you’re on your way to Porto, the town of Coimbra is definitely worth a stop. I wish we had had more time to explore this old city.

Conimbriga, Portugal

Conimbriga – Portugal’s Best-Preserved Roman Ruins

On our way north from Nazaré to Porto we stopped at the site of a Roman settlement in Portugal, known as Conimbriga, which is about halfway between those two cities (roughly 110 km or 68 miles either way). The history of Conimbriga actually dates back well before the Romans, to the Bronze and Iron ages. It was an ideal location, on a plateau that was easy to defend and good access to water.

What remains are the Roman-era ruins, of which 17% have been excavated, leaving a lot more to discover. The visible ruins date from about mid 1st century CE to about 500 CE, when the Roman empire finally completely collapsed. Although most of the structures are pretty ruined, enough remains to get a feel for the wealth and prosperity of Conimbriga in its prime.

Conimbriga, Portugal

The gate and road into Conimbriga. The original city walls were smaller and encircled a much wider area. The town’s fortifications were strengthened around a smaller portion of the city in the 3rd century CE.

Conimbriga, Portugal

These structures, which include shops, baths and houses, are just outside the town’s walls, which form the backdrop.

The largest aristocratic residence, known as the House of Fountains, sits just outside the walls. It was constructed around 200 CE and excavated in 1939. It has a huge courtyard (or peristyle) with pools, fountains and beautiful mosaic floors in its rooms. Unfortunately, it was largely demolished when the defenses of the town were strengthened and building material was needed. The remnants of this 35,000 sq. feet residence are still interesting, protected by an overhead shelter.

House of the Fountains, Conimbriga, Portugal

The courtyard of the House of the Fountains, with its pools and small fountains. It must have been very impressive 2,000 years ago. Note the mosaic floors around the perimeter of the pools.

House of the Fountains, Conimbriga, Portugal

A view of some of the rooms in the House of the Fountains.

House of the Fountains, Conimbriga, Portugal

A closer look at the frescoes and mosaic floors in the House of the Fountains.

There are remains of other buildings inside the city walls, including a forum, basilica, and other dwellings. The Romans were amazing engineers and builders, their ability to construct a city layout with infrastructure that is still partially intact today speaks to their skills.

Conimbriga, Portugal

This structure is known as the House of Cantaber, constructed about 100 CE. The columns surround the peristyle (courtyard). The city walls are right behind the house.

Baths, Conimbriga, Portugal.

A view of private baths at Conimbriga, the foundations here date from the 3rd and 4th century. The hexagonal tanks were heated and held hot water.

Conimbriga, Portugal

Detail of the mosaic floor of the aptly named “House of the Swastika”, excavated in 1940. (The infamous Nazi adaptation was reversed from this much earlier version)

Conimbriga, Portugal

Another view of the ruins of Conimbriga.

Conimbriga, Portugal

The remains of the Baths of the Aqueduct (the wall behind the raised floor was the aqueduct, and the raised floor covers part of the baths).

In addition to the ruins at Conimbriga, there is a small museum on the site, and there are a few other small Roman ruins north and south (Alcabideque, Rabaçal and Santiago Da Guardia), indicating the expanse of Roman civilization in this part of Portugal.

Places to Visit in Central Portugal (Tomar, Alcobaça and Batalha) – Part II

Portugal is home to some of the most famous medieval-era monasteries in Europe. On our last trip, we were able to visit four of them. A primary reason for our two day stay in Nazaré was to visit three of these monasteries: Alcobaça, Batalha and Tomar (the fourth monastery is in Belém, near Lisbon, I have written a little about it here). It might be possible to visit all three in an extremely rushed day; however, I would suggest visiting Alcobaça and Batalha on one day (both are pretty close to Nazaré) and then see Tomar on the second day, with a visit to Almourol castle before or after (these two sights are just 32 km (20 miles) apart).

All three monasteries in this post are well worth visiting. For sake of time, I would prioritize Tomar first (it’s the furthest away and has the most extensive set of rooms that can be visited), Alcobaça and then Batalha.

Tomar (Convento de Cristo)

The town of Tomar, known for its unique monastery (called Convento de Cristo), is one of the signature sights in Portugal. The main chapel dates to the 11th century and the walls surround the monastery complex are much older. Convento de Cristo is extremely unique because of its circular, fortress-like chapel, and its long association with the Templar Knights.

Convento de Cristo, Tomar

A view of the walls surrounding Convento de Cristo in Tomar.

I had the privilege of visiting Convento de Cristo a few years ago, and I was just as amazed visiting it again on this trip as I had been previously. The site is extensive, and consists of visiting the chapel, cloisters with several levels, kitchens, refectory, dorm rooms, meeting halls and other places, including the exterior gardens.

Convento de Cristo, Tomar.

The circular (16 sided) Templar chapel of Convento de Cristo.

Convento de Cristo, Tomar, Portugal

Interior of the Templar Chapel (Charola), Convento de Cristo.

Convento de Cristo, Tomar.

The elaborate entrance to Convento de Cristo, Tomar.

Convento de Cristo, Tomar

Detail of the Manueline sculptures (16th century) which decorate the Convento de Cristo.

Allow at least two hours for your visit. The site is well sign-posted with English explanations.

Note: Several years ago, I visited Tomar as a day trip via train from Lisbon (see post here). This is very doable. However, if you have more time, a road trip is better, since you will be able to see more sights along the way. Since my family had not been to Tomar, we made this sight one of our destinations out of Nazaré. It’s only 77 km (48 miles) directly east of Nazaré. This monastery sits on a hill overlooking the town, and parking is available off the road part way up the hill.

Tomar Aqueduct

Also, just north of the town of Tomar a few kilometers is an old aqueduct, built in the 1590’s. Visiting it is free, it goes right over and next to the road. We saw it on the map and made our way to it after our visit to the monastery. It was built to provide water to the monastery.

Tomar aqueduct, Portugal.

A view of the aqueduct near Tomar. You can take a walk across the top.


This Cistercian monastery is just 16 km (10 miles) east of Nazaré and takes its name from its location at the confluence of the Alcoa and Baça rivers, which provided a water source for crops and the monastery residents. Construction began in 1178 and now the monastery is surrounded by the old town of Alcobaça.

Alcobaça monastery, Portugal.

Exterior view of Alcobaça monastery.

Alcobaça Monastery, Portugal

A view of the Cloister of Silence, built in the 13th century.

Alcobaça Monastery, Portugal

The massive and austere interior of Alcobaça Church. The vaults are over 20 meters (65 ft) high.

Alcobaça Monastery, Portugal

Alcobaça’s refectory (where the monks would eat their meals). From this pulpit, there would be scripture readings to those gathered.

Alcobaca Monastery Kitchen2

Everything in Alcobaça is on a huge scale. This is a view of the massive kitchen.

Alcobaça Monastery, Portugal

Reliquary Chapel, built between 1669 – 1672, part of the Manueline Sacristy. There is an additional fee to visit this chapel, but it is well worth it. Seventy-one terra cotta busts adorn the interior.

Alcobaça Monastery, Portugal.

The dormitory, one of the oldest parts of the monastery.

The adjacent town of Alcobaça also deserves at least a short walk, it has a scenic center.

Alcobaça Monastery, Portugal

A view of Alcobaça town.


Founded in 1386 by King João I (who is buried here), to commemorate a battle that led to Portugal’s independence from Spain, this site is of national importance to the Portuguese. Construction went on for hundreds of years and was never completed. This monastery is 32 km (20 miles) northeast of Nazaré. It is considered one of the finest manifestations of gothic architecture in Portugal. This monastery was nearly in ruins in the early 1800’s, and thankfully it has been restored and is now a museum.

Batalha Monastery, Portugal.

A view of the north side of Batalha Monastery.

Batalha Monastery, Portugal

Another view of the exterior of Batalha Monastery.

Batalha, Portugal

The intricate detail carvings over the entrance to the unfinished chapels (Capelas Imperfeitas) at Batalha.

Batalha, Portugal.

A view of the unfinished chapels.

Batalha, Portugal.

The soaring expanse of the main nave in the church at Batalha.

Batalha, Portugal

Door carving at the entrance to the cloisters.

Batalha, Portugal.

A view of the cloisters at Batalha.

Batalha, Portugal.

The Chapter House at Batalha. Its ceiling covers a large expanse and has no central support, an engineering feat in the early 1400’s. Soldiers can be seen standing as honor guards in this room by the far wall, stationed here in remembrance of the war of independence from Spain.


We visited these monasteries in October, and none were very busy. You can get a ticket that allows you to visit all three of those discussed in this post for a discounted rate. A senior rate is also available. Buy your ticket at the first monastery you visit. There is a direct train to Tomar from Lisbon (I recall that there were only one or two stops along the way), and it’s an easy day trip from Lisbon. Travel to Batalha and Alcobaça is a bit more complicated from Lisbon via train (it requires bus travel too). A rental car is by far more convenient.

Nazaré, Portugal.

Places to Visit in Central Portugal – Part I

From Sintra, we drove north to our next destination, Nazaré, a town on the central coast of Portugal. We chose Nazaré as our base for exploring this region of the country due to its location, choice of hotels and natural beauty. Since there is much to see in this part of Portugal, I will cover some sights in this post and others in Part II.

Almourol Castle

This scenic, small medieval castle sits on a rocky outcrop in the Tagus River, the same river which flows through Lisbon.

Almourol Castle, Portugal

A view of the castle from our small boat.

The castle is located 110 km (68 miles) east of Nazaré. Not much is really known about the castle’s history, but it was likely built prior to the Christian conquest of the Iberian Peninsula in 1129. The Knights Templar had stewardship of the castle and surrounding lands until their disbanding in the 1300’s.

Almourol Castle, Portugal.

The massive walls of the castle.

Almourol Castle, Portugal

Entrance to the castle.

To reach the castle, you have to take a small boat, and you are given about 45 minutes to visit the castle before the boat returns to the mainland. The castle is in a rural area–there is a small snack shop near the parking lot, but not many restaurants around. Also, the boat operator takes a 1.5 hour lunch break, so plan your visit accordingly.


This town would be another good base for visiting central Portugal (it’s just 37 km northeast of Nazaré). Even though Leiria is surrounded by many tourist sights, the town itself is not on the tourist map, but is still worth a stop. Sitting on a prominent hilltop overlooking the town is an old castle (which was turned into a palace).

Leiria Castle, Portugal

Leiria’s town square with its castle on the hilltop.

The town square below (known as Praça Rodrigues Lobo) has a nice view of the castle. The town also has some quaint streets, a cathedral, an old 15th century paper mill and a little 11th century church (near the castle).

Leiria, Portugal

Street scene in Leiria.

Just 15 minutes south of Leiria is the stunning monastery of Batalha, which I will cover in Part II.


About 40 km south of Nazaré is Obidos, a medieval town encircled by a high wall. At the south end of the old town is a beautiful gate and at the north end is an old castle watching over the town and surrounding countryside.

Obidos, Portugal.

At the north end of of the old town of Obidos with its castle.

Obidos, Portugal.

Main Gate, Obidos. A 14th century gate, with 18th century tile work.

You can walk on the walls around the whole town for free.

Obidos, Portugal.

One of the entrances to the wall by the castle.

Obidos, Portugal

On our walk around the walls of Obidos.

We made it one half the way around the walls and then decided to do some shopping and have lunch in this magnificent setting.

Obidos, Portugal

Obidos Town Square. There are several interesting old churches is the town.

Obidos, Portugal.

Street scene in Obidos.

I would consider Obidos on the “must see” list in Portugal.


Nazaré itself is an interesting town and was our home for a few nights as we explored the region. It is a fishing village and a summer destination for the Portuguese, given its good beaches and central location. Nazaré doesn’t really have a “surfing vibe” like spots in Southern California, but I understand it has some of the best waves found in the Atlantic Ocean.

Nazaré, Portugal.

Looking down on the lower part of Nazaré with its wide expanse of beach. (The funicular tramway is in the lower part of the photo).

The beach is wide and quite beautiful, but unfortunately, we were there in the fall time (October) and didn’t get to enjoy the water. The town is split into two distinct parts, with the lower part hugging the beach, and the oldest part of the town sitting on a bluff overlooking the ocean, lower town and beaches.

Nazaré, Portugal.

Old Town Square, “upper” Nazaré.

Lots of good restaurants down by the beach. We stayed at the Hotel Magic, a great boutique hotel in the lower town.

Nazaré, Portugal.

The lower part of Nazaré has a nice promenade along the beach.

In my next post, I will cover our visits to the world famous Alcobaca, Bathala and Tomar monasteries.

Mt. Kilimanjaro

Conquering Kilimanjaro and Finding My Heart for Adventure

Note from the Independent Tourist: The below post was written by my nephew, Mark Bitton, who climbed Mt. Kilimanjaro in the spring of 2017. At the bottom of this post, he provides some practical tips for anyone considering this climb.

Mt. Kilimanjaro

Photo by Slavomir Hepka

Mt. Kilimanjaro rises 19,341 ft. above sea level and is the highest freestanding mountain in the world. Being in Africa, the average temperature is higher, making it one of the few 5000m+ mountains in the world that can be climbed without crampons, ice picks and technical training. In fact, the primary skill level required to summit is simply being in reasonably good shape, which is why over 25,000 climbers a year come to Tanzania and attempt to summit Mt. Kilimanjaro. That said, not everybody makes it to the summit. The Kilimanjaro National Parks department put out statistics showing that of those climbers that tried to summit in 5 days or less, only had a 27% success rate. By contrast, those who take 8 days to summit have about an 85% success rate. In other words, it’s not about how fast you can run the mile, it’s based on how your body acclimates to the higher altitude and the more time you give your body, the greater your odds of success.

Turning 40 this year, my primary motivation for flying solo to Tanzania was not solely recreational. My life lacked a sense of adventure and the idea of traveling alone to Africa and scaling one of the world’s taller mountains seemed to adventurous and frankly a little scary. I’d never climbed anything higher than 14,000 feet and had only done that once. In addition to not knowing how I’d do with the altitude, by going alone, I was to be mixed in with a hodge-podge group of 11 other climbers from around the world. Fortunately, not only did they all speak English at least as a secondary language, but we quickly discovered everybody in the group to be very friendly, open and humorous.

Mt. Kilimanjaro climging group.

Our climbing group. (That’s me on the right in the white shirt).

In 8 days, I felt like I’d made lifelong friends with almost everybody in the group.

Day 1:  The first day entailed a muddy drive up to the starting point of the hike. We were doing the Lemosho Route, so most of the scenery at the bottom of the mountain was tropical rain forest. It was pretty humid, though already being at about 4,000 feet, it wasn’t as hot as it had been down in Moshi or Arusha, the two closest towns to the base of Kilimanjaro.

Day 2:  On Day 2 you hike for about an hour before you say goodbye to trees for the remainder of the climb. Much of day 2 was filled with what I would describe as overgrown sage brush.

Mt. Kilimanjaro.

Typical terrain on Day 2.

At the end of Day 2, we were introduced to all of the porters and guides in our group. In all, there were 36 porters (guys that carry a portion of your equipment, food and tents, etc.) and 8 guides.

Days 3-5:  If you’re looking for lush, verdant vistas and valleys, this is not the place. There is no mistaking Kilimanjaro for anything in the Swiss Alps. The terrain is rocky, with very little vegetation and very little protection from the sun. There are some plants you’ll find on Kilimanjaro that cannot be found anywhere else in the world.

Climbing Mt. Kilimanjaro.

This is the Senecio Kilimanjari plant. Each branch represents 25 years of age – some trees are over 400 years old.

The weather can change quickly as well. We were fortunate that Day 5 was the only day in which we were soaked by a heavy thunderstorm. Nobody’s “rain proof” gear proved completely waterproof and when combined with our sweat from hiking, it made for a soaked day. Most of the day was filled with conversation while hiking, mixed in with a bunch of “pole, pole” reminders from the guides, which is Swahili for “slow, slow”, reminding us that in thin air, going slow will help us adapt better. Our late afternoons and evenings were generally occasioned by a couple of card games, dinner and then hitting the pillow early each night as camp fires were not allowed.

Climbing Mt. Kilimanjaro.

Typical terrain on Days 3-5 of our climb.

Climbing Mt. Kilimanjaro.

Carefully finding our way.

Days 6-8: Due to the rocky nature of the landscape, we were impressed at how well the porters did in finding flat spots for our tents.

Climbing Mt. Kilimanjaro.

Our camps included facilities for sleeping, eating and a portable potty.

On Day 6, we arrived at the final base camp named Barafu, which is at about 15,331 feet.  The air was noticeably thinner here and we were told to sleep as much as we could before and after dinner as we would begin the final ascent at about 11pm. I was not accustomed to sleeping in the afternoon and my brain refused to sleep. (Side note: It’s not safe to take sleep aids at this elevation). So with no sleep, we started climbing for Uhuru Peak, which was another 4,000 ft vertical climb in the dark, with only headlamps to show the way. The higher we went, the colder it got. I tried sipping from my CamelBak® every 5 minutes or so to keep the line from freezing, however, about an hour before the summit, it froze anyway and the rest of the way I was without water and only had snacks that were frozen solid. Not everything was pain and drudgery however. The star filled sky from the top of Kilimanjaro was magnificent.  I’ve never seen the stars with such clarity and brilliance. The final ascent was quite hard and only through extreme determination and effort did about 2/3 of our group make it to the peak. The other third did so without too much of a struggle.

Summit of Mt. Kilimanjaro.

The exhilaration of making it to the top – 19,314 feet above sea level.

I felt extremely fortunate to not feel the heavy toll of the altitude as extensively as most of my hiking comrades. Talking became rare as we approached the summit simply because the expiration of breath cost too much to do so. That is, except for the guides of course who seemed to be well acclimated and accustomed to the hours and the elevation.

Climbing Mt. Kilimanjaro.

From the summit of Kilimanjaro at sunrise. What a beautiful sight.

Around 6:30am we arrived at the peak, just in time for the sunrise, the dim light revealed a large glacier near the peak and the solemn expanse of a treacherous and rocky peak.

Once you’re at the summit and have taken your pictures, there’s no hamburger joint to hang out at, so after about half an hour of the frigid cold, we headed back down. The journey back down proved to be the most difficult part of the entire hike for me. Upon beginning our descent, I’d now been awake for over 25 hours straight and the exhaustion from a combined lack of sleep and thin air was beginning to be apparent. The descent was steep and filled with loose shale and rocky dust, resembling volcanic ash more than it did a loamy dirt.

About half way down to the Barafu base camp, my knees started to feel the pain of absorbing the stress. I hobbled into base camp at about noon and was told to sleep as we would be doing some more hiking that afternoon. At this point I had a pounding headache, was sweating profusely and had both knees throbbing. 800mg of Ibuprofen didn’t seem to make the slightest dent and I had no hunger for lunch. I didn’t even come close to sleeping that afternoon and around 2pm we headed out for what I thought would be a short hike to get to a lower elevation. Twelve miles later and what felt like a gazillion rocky stairs later, I finally arrived, dead last to the camp. In all my life, I’ve never felt so exhausted. I had gone just over 40 hours without sleep, in some of the most strenuous conditions I’d ever faced. When my head hit the pillow that night, sleep finally came easy and I enjoyed one of the most restful nights of sleep I’d had in years. The next day, I awoke and to my great relief, with sleep my leg muscles had rejuvenated and my knee pain as a result had dissipated about 75% making the last 8 miles of decent feel easy by comparison to the prior day.

When I’d left the U.S., I’d wanted it to be tough. I was looking for a challenge, so in an odd way, I found the grueling descent experience perhaps the most rewarding part of my adventure. Most of the others I should note, did not have similar issues with their knees. I guess that’s my reward for enjoying one too many skiing moguls as a youth.

Climbing Mt. Kilimanjaro.

The descent seemed never-ending.

Climbing Mt. Kilimanjaro.

Our tired, but happy group. Photo by Slavo Hepka

Upon returning I’ve been asked by several persons if I’d experienced the adventure I was looking for. Yes, I did. However, on Kilimanjaro I discovered that it’s not simply about experiencing an adventure, it’s about finding the heart of the adventurer inside yourself.  That, my friends, is a thirst I cannot quench, but one in which I’m happy to live the rest of my life pursuing. ‘Til the next great adventure.

Climbing Mt. Kilimanjaro.

Photo by Slavo Hepka.

Practical Notes:

Season: The Kilimanjaro climbing season is late September through late February, with November – January typically being the best weather.

Tour Company: The company I used was “Ultimate Kilimanjaro”. Of the companies I researched, they had the best combination of overall value, price and expertise. I also added a two-day safari at the start of the trip. Very worthwhile.

Access: Kilimanjaro National Airport, near Arusha. The mountain is near the city of Moshi, about a one hour drive from Arusha.

Route: Our tour company took the Lemosho Route, about 42 miles total, and one of the longer routes. Most of the miles are spent going up and a shorter route is taken coming down.

Preparation: I am in fairly good physical condition, exercising regularly. I hiked 5-10 miles a couple times a week with a 50 lb pack for a couple months prior to the trip. The porters carry most of the camp gear and the group members each carried about 25 lbs of personal gear with them. Most of the group was between the ages of 20 and 50. You do NOT want to have medical attention on this trip. Very difficult to get assistance.

What to Bring: The website provides lots of information. Don’t skimp on the rain gear or warm weather clothing. Also, bring a couple card games for entertainment – there are no campfires so evening entertainment is limited. Solar is the only practical way to charge your electronics (e.g. phone) and lamps, and they will probably not last long each day. Diamox for altitude sickness is very helpful.


Sintra – You Won’t Get Bored Here – Part 2

I had been to Sintra a few years ago while on business to Lisbon, Portugal. I knew one day I would have to come back, and I finally did. It is a short drive (or train ride) away from Lisbon (about 40 kilometers or 25 miles).

Sintra, Portugal

A view of Sintra and the surrounding countryside.

As I said in my original post on Sintra, it is one of the most enchanting towns in Europe, due to its multitude of fascinating sights. I don’t know of any other small town that offers so much for the tourist in such a compact area. Even after spending the better part of two days here this time, there are still things I did not get to see.

Sintra has its roots in Portugal’s Moorish past, dating to the eighth or ninth century. On my first visit I saw the Moorish castle (Castelo dos Mouros, a fine set of ramparts high above the town) and the Pena Palace (Palácio Da Pena), the polychromatic post card image of Sintra.

On this trip I added three more sights:

Quinta da Regaleira. This manor house with its gardens takes its name from Baroness da Regaleira, who bought the property in 1840. This was the summer residence of the Carvalho Monteiro family beginning in the mid 1800’s, and most of what we see now is from the late 1800’s and early 1900s.

Quinta da Regaleira, Sintra, Portugal

A view of the house and chapel. The chapel contains scenes of the lives of Mary and Christ, and symbols from the Templar Order (Knights).

Quinta da Regaleira, Sintra, Portugal

Ornate wood work and beautifully painted walls adorn this bedroom.

Quinta da Regaleira, Sintra, Portugal

The Hunting Room. The mantlepiece depicts exceptionally well-carved hunting scenes.

Quinta da Regaleira, Sintra, Portugal

The decorative exterior can be appreciated in this view.

The house exterior exhibits the ornate “neo Manueline” (named after King Dom Manuel I) style, but what really sets this incredible estate apart are the fascinating (and extensive) gardens.

Quinta da Regaleira, Sintra, Portugal

The Regaleira Tower, which provides a great view over the gardens and sits on top of Leda’s Grotto.

The Monteiros had quite an imagination in creating these gardens – which contain numerous grottoes, underground walkways, an inverted tower (that goes several stories underground), gardens, pools, towers, statues and a chapel.

Quinta da Regaleira,Sintra, Portugal

A view from the bottom of the inverted tower at Quinta da Regaleira.

Quinta da Regaleira, Sintra, Portugal

One of Quinta da Regaleira’s grottoes.

Quinta da Regaleira, Sintra, Portugal

Entrance to one of the many tunnels in gardens.

Many of these features contain symbolism from mythology, ancient classical works and the medieval period.

The National Palace (Palácio National, or Palácio de Sintra). The palace occupies a prominent spot in the center of town. It was originally an Arab construction and became the residence of the Portuguese royal family from the 12th century. Later on it became a royal summer retreat. Although the outside looks rather plain, painted white, the interior is something to behold. It has a unique blend of styles, including Gothic, Mudéjar (Iberian Arabic), and Manueline, with incredible collections of tiles and other artistic treasures.

Palace of Sintra, Portugal.

A view of the Palacio de Sintra from the Castelo dos Mouros. The conical towers are chimneys over the massive the kitchen.

National Palace, Sintra, Portugal

The Grand Hall (or Hall of the Princes) at the National Palace.

Palacio de Sintra, Portugal

The Blazons Hall, built during the reign of Manuel I (1495-1521). The ceiling in carved gilded woodwork is crowned by the royal coat-of-arms and is surrounded by the armorial bearings of seventy two noble families. The late 17th to early 18th century panels of painted tiles depict courtly and hunting scenes.

Palacio de Sintra, Portugal

Grotto of the Baths, the decorated tiles depict scenes of nobility, fountains and gardens.

Palacio de Sintra, Portugal

A view of the kitchen.

Palacio de Sintra, Portugal.

Another room in Palácio de Sintra.

The Convent of the Capuchos (Convento dos Capuchos or The Convent of the Holy Cross in the Sintra Hills). This is probably my favorite spot in Sintra and perhaps all of Portugal. This 16th century convent sits south of Sintra about 7 km (4.5 miles). It was abandoned in 1843 when religious orders were extinguished in Portugal.

Convento dos Capuchos, Sintra, Portugal

Courtyard of the Crosses. The courtyard leads into the Convent and contains three crosses representing Golgotha.

Convento dos Capuchos, Sintra, Portugal

The Courtyard of the Fountain, where visitors making the long journey to the Convent would take refreshment.

Built among the huge boulders of its hillside location, it embodies the ideal of universal fraternity of the Franciscan friars who lived here.

Convento dos Capuchos, Sintra, Portugal

The Hermitage of Our Lord in Gethsemane, with frescoes (near the door) of St. Francis of Assisi (left) and St. Anthony of Lisbon (right).

Convento dos Capuchos, Sintra, Portugal

A view of the Cloister, a private space for the Franciscan community.

Covento dos Capuchos Entrance2

Entryway ceiling, lined in cork.

It is simple, small, very picturesque, and feels like something right out of The Hobbit. Many of the rooms (especially the dormitories) and corridors are tiny.

Convento dos Capuchos, Sintra, Portugal

Dormitory corridor. Note the ceiling and door frames decorated in cork.

The unusual extensive use of cork (that’s where the name ‘Capuchos’ comes from) throughout the monastery was for insulation, sound proofing and decoration.

Convento dos Capuchos, Sintra, Portugal

The Chapter House, with cork entry way.

We were given a brochure as a guide and allowed to wander the site on our own. Be sure to explore the nature trails above the monastery for a few other interesting sights.

All added up, I’ve spent about three days in Sintra and I could have easily spent one or two more. This is a special place. For more information on Sintra, visit

War Museum, Saigon

5 Things to Do in Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon)

Our last stop in Vietnam was Ho Chi Minh City. The city was known as Saigon for many years until it was renamed after the end of the Vietnam War. Interestingly, locals still often refer to it as Saigon. This is Vietnam’s largest city with about 10 million inhabitants.

Ho Chi Minh City view

View of central Ho Chi Minh City. The central tower has an observation deck for tourists.

The first thing we noticed on our drive into the city from the airport was how different it felt from Hanoi! Ho Chi Minh City felt much more vibrant, fashionable and modern – with lots of marquee international stores and young people on scooters going everywhere.

Ho Chi Minh City Vietnam

View of Ho Chi Minh City from the observation deck mentioned above.

We spent two days here. Our first day was spent exploring the sights in the core downtown area (on foot) and on our second day we took a day trip to the Cu Chi Tunnels, about 70 km (45 miles) outside the city.

War Remnants Museum

This is the main tourist attraction in Ho Chi Minh City. It tells the story of the Vietnam War from the perspective of the Vietnamese people and their Communist regimes.

War Remnants Museum Saigon

Exterior view of the War Remnants Museum.

War Remnants Museum Saigon

The courtyard of the War Remnants Museum is filled with various U.S. Military equipment.

Of course, horrific tragedies occurred on both sides and no one was innocent in this conflict. The whole war was an unfortunate disaster that caused pain and suffering on both sides.

War Remnants Museum, Saigon

A sign post in the War Remnants Museum.

Saigon War Remnants Museum11

Prisoner cages.

Vietnam War Map

This map shows the areas of heaviest fighting during the Vietnam War (areas in black).

Saigon War Remnants Museum12

A display inside the War Remnants Museum.

The museum is large and well organized, with exhibits on several floors and outside the main building. Plan at least two hours for your visit, and if you want to read everything, even longer.


Jade Emperor Pagoda

This temple takes the cake for weirdness for those of us less initiated in the Buddhist and Taoist religions – with crowded, smoke (incense) filled rooms.

Jade Pagoda, Saigon

Exterior of the Jade Emperor Pagoda

Jade Emperor Pagoda

Exterior detail at the Jade Emperor Pagoda.

It’s hard to describe, although Lonely Planet does a pretty good job: “this is one of the most spectacularly atmospheric temples in Ho Chi Minh City, stuffed with statues of phantasmal divinities and grotesque heroes”.

Jade Emperor Pagoda

Interior view of Jade Emperor Pagoda with a variety of figures.

Jade Emperor Pagoda

Another view in the Jade Emperor Pagoda.

Jade Emperor Pagoda

One other view of the interior of the Jade Emperor Pagoda.

The temple is not old, having been constructed in 1909 in honor of the supreme Taoist god (known as the Jade Emperor), Ngoc Hoang. It is crowded with strange-looking figures and jumbled rooms. Definitely worth a visit!

Notre-Dame Cathedral Basilica of Saigon

This basilica was built between 1863-1880 by the French during the period of French colonialism in Vietnam. One of the vestiges of their occupation is this beautiful (and out of place) cathedral located in the heart of the city on a pretty square.

Saigon Notre Dame Basilica

A view of the Basilica in Ho Chi Minh City. The statue of Mary in the foreground supposedly shed tears in 2005, stopping traffic in this busy area.

All of the materials for this cathedral were imported from France.

Saigon Notre Dame Basilica1

Interior view of the Basilica.

Central Post Office

Right next to the Cathedral is another relic of the French era, the Central Post Office. This building was constructed in the late 1800’s and contains two beautiful paintings on its walls (maps of Saigon and the larger region) and a variety of shops.

Central Post Office Saigon

Exterior view of the Central Post Office.

Central Post Office Saigon

Interior view of the Central Post Office.

There is a tourist office here where we arranged for our tour of the Cu Chi Tunnels (see below).

Cu Chi Tunnels

These relics of the Vietnam War are less than 45 miles outside the city, but took about 90 minutes to reach due to traffic getting out of the city. They are well worth the effort. We did this as part of a day tour (our group had about eight people).

Cu Chi Tunnels, Ho Chi Minh City

Entrance to the Cu Chi Tunnels.

The extensive tunnel systems served as communication and transportation networks to aid the Viet Cong in fighting the South Vietnamese and U.S. forces. There are two main tunnel areas that can be visited: Ben Duoc and Ben Dinh, our tour went to Ben Dinh.

Cu Chi Tunnels

A main entrance into one of the bunkers at Cu Chi Tunnels.

Some rooms were large enough to be used as conference rooms and hospitals.

Cu Chi Tunnels

One of the war rooms in the Cu Chi Tunnels.

Cu Chi Tunnels

Hospital display at the Cu Chi Tunnels.

There are 250 km (155 miles) of tunnels here, some are two levels deep. It must have been quite an engineering feat to dig these tunnels and lay out the system in a stealth manner.

We were shown secret entrances, disguised air vents, and treacherous booby traps.  We had the opportunity to crawl on our hands and knees through tiny tunnels that had lovely bats flying around you!

Hidden entrance to Cu Chi Tunnels

A hidden entrance to the tunnels.

Cu Chi Tunnels

A typical corridor in the tunnels.

Cu Chi Tunnels, Ho Chi Minh City

Cramped space in the Cu Chi Tunnels!

Cu Chi Tunnels air shaft.

Concealed air shaft to the tunnels.

Cu Chi Tunnels

Booby trap – watch your step or you could end up falling on these huge spikes.

Be sure to wear clothes you don’t mind getting dirty! After spending time crawling on our hands and knees in the tunnels in a damp humid climate we gained an appreciation for what it must have been like to live in these conditions for months or years.

Ho Chi Minh City is a great place to visit, be sure it’s on your itinerary in Vietnam.