Things to see in China

A Visit to Xi’an’s Terra-Cotta Warriors Museum

Our next stop in China after Beijing was the city of Xi’an, which was put on the tourist map after the discovery of the Terra-Cotta Warriors. A farmer in the mid 1970’s was digging a well, and discovered what is now called Pit 1, the largest of three Pits with lengthy columns of carefully placed warriors, horses and chariots. The warriors are part of the funerary art created to protect the first emperor of China (Qin Shihuang) in the afterlife and date from about 210 BCE. The emperor’s tomb is about 1 mile away. The massive effort required to create such a display reminds one of the Great Pyramids of Egypt. Although it seems a shame to have buried such amazing art, thank goodness it was, because we now are able to appreciate it 2,000 years later.

The Terra-Cotta Warriors museum is about 45 minutes by bus outside Xian. What impressed me most about the museum is its immense scale, I had no idea the museum was as large as it is, with 4 buildings, covering Pits 1, 2 and 3 and a separate building that houses the bronze chariots and other figures also discovered here (don’t miss this building during your visit).

Xi'an Terra Cotta Warriors Entrance

The entrance to the Museum. This was a moderately busy day!

They are called “pits” because they are literally earthen pit shelters where the terra-cotta warriors were buried.

Given the size of the museum complex, our tour guide did the right thing by giving a quick overview and then letting us wander the site on our own for a couple hours. We visited right before the start of the Chinese National Holidays, and I was glad we did. The museum was still busy, but less so than it would be just a few days later, when our guide said the line of traffic to get to the Museum was 10 km long! The Terra Cotta Warriors Museum is probably the #1 attraction in China for locals as well as tourists.

Pit 1

Pit 1 is the largest exhibit, but because of its scale, it’s a little more difficult to get a close observation of the warriors. It contains about 2,000 warriors and horses.

Terra Cotta Warrior Museum, Xi'an, China

Entrance to Pit 1, the largest of the three Pits.

Most people stop (and clog) at the view by front entrance, but make your way around to the sides (visit both sides) to get other interesting views of the warriors. Be prepared for lots of shoving and pushing as you deal with the mobs. Hang on to your belongings carefully!

Terra Cotta Warriors Museum, Xi'an, China

View of Pit 1 near the entrance. Quite a sight to behold.

Terra Cotta Warriors, Xi'an, China

Another view of the warriors in Pit 1.

Terra Cotta Warriors Museum, Xi'an, China

A side view of Pit 1. The original discovery was made from the digging of a well near the lower right of this photo.

Terra Cotta Warriors Museum, Xi'an, China

A little closer view of the warriors. Their headgear denotes their rank. You can also see a bit of their color here.

Terra Cotta Warriors Museum, Xi'an, China

A closer side view near the front entrance of Pit 1.

Terra Cotta Warriors Museum, Xi'an, China

At the rear of Pit 1, the painstaking restoration work on the terra-cotta figures continues.

Pit 2

Pit 2 is the smallest of the three pits, and excavation work continues here. It was discovered in April 1976, about two years after the discovery of Pit 1.

Terra Cotta Warriors Museum, Xi'an, China

This is a view of Pit 2, the smallest of the three. It consists of more variety of figures than Pit 1, with archers, chariots, calvary and infantry.

Terra Cotta Warriors Museum, Xi'an, China

A closer view of Pit 2.

Pit 3

Pit 3 was the last to be discovered, in June 1976. Extensive damage to the figures in this pit occurred anciently. It was the “command center” for the warriors in the other Pits.

Terra Cotta Warriors Museum, Xi'an, China

A view of the original sloped entrance into Pit 3.

Terra Cotta Warriors Museum, Xi'an, China

View of Pit 3, showing the original earthen coverings and entrances into the Pit.

Terra Cotta Warriors Museum, Xi'an, China

Detail of Pit 3.

Terra Cotta Warriors Museum, Xi'an, China.

Another detailed view of Pit 3, showing how all destroyed pieces have been labeled.

Bronze Chariots

In a separate building you will find perhaps the most amazing pieces of art at the museum, including two bronze chariot displays from the same era as the terra-cotta warriors.

Terra Cotta Warriors Museum, Xi'an, China

The building where the bronze chariots are located (on the basement level).

These chariots were discovered in 1978, near the emperor’s tomb, and brought to this museum for display. They are amazing in their detailed craftsmanship and have survived well over the centuries. They are made of bronze and painted, with some use of gold and silver too. They are on a 50% scale to full size.

Terra Cotta Warriors Museum, Xi'an, China

One of the bronze chariots.

Terra Cotta Warriors Museum, Xi'an, China

The second bronze chariot. The horses look so lifelike! Note the figure in the cart behind the horses.

Terra Cotta Warriors Museum, Xi'an, China

This figure, along with a number of other figures and artifacts are located in the same building as the bronze chariots. This guy is one of seven generals found in the Pits. His armor, headgear and neck bows all point to being a high-ranking officer.

Terra Cotta Warrior Museum, Xi'an, China

I’m not sure of the story behind this boat carved from jade, located in a hallway in the building with the bronze chariots. It has nothing to do (as far as I know) with the Terra Cotta Warriors, but it is an incredible piece of art!

Please note that you enter the huge museum complex in one direction, and on your exit  you go a separate direction through a myriad of food vendors and shops. The displays were quite colorful and entertaining!Xi'an Food3Xi'an Food1Xi'an Food2

Old central Xi’an itself is quite a stunning city, and in my next post I’ll share a few pictures of central part of the city.

The Summer Palace – A Bit of Paradise in Beijing

The last tourist sight we visited before leaving Beijing was the Summer Palace. The Summer Palace is about 15 km (9 miles) northwest of central Beijing.

The Summer Palace is a huge expanse of gardens, temples and other structures, all dominated by the central feature, Kunming Lake. The Summer Palace provides a welcome respite from the traffic and noises of the city. If I were the Emperor, I would probably find an excuse to spend most of my time here!

Tower of Buddhist Incense, Summer Palace, Beijing, China

The Tower of Buddhist Incense sits on Longevity Hill, which was created from the excavation of Kunming Lake in the foreground. We did not have the time to climb up the tower, which would offer great views of the Summer Palace grounds. Unfortunately it was a bit hazy on the day we visited.

The Palace was initially built in 1750 by the Emperor Qianlong, and served as a royal retreat. It has undergone many restorations, particularly after 1860 due to the destruction caused by various conflicts. The person most associated with the Palace is the   Empress Dowager Cixi (officially “Holy Mother Empress Dowager”). She was born in 1835, became a concubine at the Palace and eventually saw her son (and later a nephew) become Emperors. However, she was the real power behind the throne for almost 40 years. Much of the restoration of the Palace took place during her “reign”.

As a tourist, it would be easy to spend a full day visiting the Palace, but at a minimum, allow 3 hours for your visit. Unfortunately it was late in the day when we arrived so we only had a couple hours to explore the surroundings. Since the Palace covers such a large area, be prepared for a lot of walking, climbing and possible boating excursions. (The photos below are in the order of our visit through the Palace Gardens).

Hall of Benevolence and Longevity, Summer Palace, Beijing, China

Just past the East Entrance is the Hall of Benevolence and Longevity (“one who is benevolent enjoys longevity”) used as an administrative area of the Emperor and Empress, where they would receive diplomats and conduct various affairs of the court.

Kylin, Summer Palace, Beijing, China

Next to the Hall of Benevolence and Longevity stands this mythical creature, called Kylin, which had the power to punish evil and repel the wicked – not hard to see why! It has a dragon head, lion tail, deer horns, and cattle hoofs, with a scaly, fish-like skin.

Beijing Summer Palace4

Wenchang Tower, largest of six gate forts in the Summer Palace garden. The tower is located near the East Entrance to the Summer Palace, along the shore of Kunming Lake.

Long Corridor, Summer Palace, Beijing, China

A view of the Long Corridor (or Long Gallery), which runs from near the east entrance to the Marble Boat along the north shore of Kunming Lake. Hundreds of paintings decorate the interior. It is probably the most iconic feature of the Summer Palace. The Long Corridor is 728 meters long, or nearly half a mile.

Long Corridor, Summer Palace, Beijing, China

An external view of the Long Corridor.

Long Corridor, Summer Palace, Beijing, China

One of the four octagonal pavilions in the Long Corridor, which represent the four seasons. The decorative paintings along the whole walk are quite beautiful.

Long Corridor, Summer Palace, Beijing, China

View of the ceiling of one of the four octagonal pavilions in the Long Corridor.

Marble Boat, Summer Palace, Beijing, China

The Marble Boat (Han Chuan, or Clear and Peaceful Boat) can be found at the end of the Long Gallery, along the north shore of Kunming Lake. It was originally built in 1755. It is quite a sight to behold.

Beijing Summer Palace16

Looking up at the Tower of Buddhist Incense from near the Long Corridor.

17 Arch Bridge, Summer Palace, Beijing, China

The 17 Arch Bridge in the distance – it is the largest bridge at the Summer Palace. It connects Nanhu Island in Kunming Lake to the mainland. (a couple of the arches are hidden by the boat).

The Palace is a bit of paradise in the huge, sprawling city of Beijing, and was one of my favorite places to visit. Bring your lunch and enjoy the scenery and people watching. Please note that the main entrance fee does not include several attractions (such as a boat ride) within the Palace gardens, those attractions will require separate fees.